For comments mail P.H.Gommers@skynet.be


Recently, appeared on internet another 'Europa with Bull' statuette with the mark of Meissen.
Research at the Meissen factory indicated an original Meissen Model ('K 70') designed  in 1793
by the closest collaborator of Kändler, Christian Gottfried Jüchtzer, about 1752-1812, and assisted
by  Johann Daniel Schöne, about 1767-1843.  Europa, in a somewhat more dynamic pose, while
 decorating the bull with flowers. The small putto appears to have ideas of his own.





According to the indicated Meissen mark on the photo, this copy can be located
in the second half of the 19th century. The bull is snowwhite and Europa is definitely
more airily clothed. The colours used for the original model are no longer known, until
a statuette would show up with marks of the 18th century. Also there is no certainty
this copy was really produced by Meissen. 

January 1, 2016   Sitemaster    HAPPY NEW YEAR

The above  Meissen figurine based on its 1793 model K70 can also be found in the statuette
31_02 here below, although Europa is here looking to a second bigger putto at the back of
bull. The other putto appears to be closer to the bull.


A two putto's Europa statuette has so far not been traced at Meissens. Also the rather overdone make-up
suggests more an imitation copy of another porcellan producer.

The almost snowwhite statuette on top of a bonbonnière is all together from another area. This streamlined figurine
of Europe and the bull was made to commemorate the completion of the innermarket of the EU


A gracious Europa, clearly easily in command. Designed and modelled by Peter Stang in a limited issue of 500 pieces.
This image was earlier shown in Princesse Europe - Europe carried away in the Cataloque issued at the occasion
of an exhibition of the mythical Europa in the Hotel de Ville of Brussels in 2010 by A.Roba

Antwerp, February 1st 2016     Ending comments on Meissen Figurines 


A romantic Europa of Jean Francois de Troy, 1716 , accompanied a book review in the Dutch daily , de Volkskrant ,
dd. 07 - 11 - 2015. The painting is well known and can be admired at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, USA.
Its publication in a daily is rather unique





The Dutch Ilja Leonard Pfeyffer is a writer, journalist, columnist and poet, living in Genua, Italy. In his book

 'Gelukzoekers'  or ' Foretune Hunters' he joins a number of earlier columns, essays and a poem. In many

different ways, they all describethe often tragic human, urge of survival, with the cynical attitude of Europeans

welcoming some refugees but trying to keep out the large numbers of people without existence and future.

Tthey consider them Fortune seekers.

His book starts with a  urgent and penetrating letter to Europa, who represents people, states, and moral ideals

based on a culminated memory of their Christian- Judaic culture, and gave their continent her name.

Writing in the first half of 2015, the migration waves coming from the North African shores directed to the close by  

European island Lampedussa in the Mediterranean sea, made him adjust Europa' flight to the European island of Crete

He starts her journey in North Africa, the supposed origin of Europe's grandfather, Libya. In this way establishing a

close parallel between Europa's sea journey  and the modern sea route to Europe. But  nowadays, refugiés are not

received with open arms. Despite the European history of migrant waves to Europe, within Europe, and from Europe.

Think of the Celts, the Saxons, the Norsemen, the Finns and Hungarians; the mass emigration from Europe to the

Americas. The settlings of the Greeks and later Italians, like Venetians, Portuguese and Spanish, Brits and Dutch

people over the whole world. And more recent Italians and Spaniards, Portuguese from south to north, and Tjechians, East
Germans, Hungarians
Slowakians, Polish workers from east to west.
  And yes, they all strengthened Europe economically and politically.

Presently, after decennia of low birthrates Europe's population is set to fall more and more rapidly, Europe needs badly large

numbers of migrants. Of course, popular politicians cry wolf and scare their aging population with the inflow of these young and

mostly dedicated people.

Madame Europa, you have aged terribly. I still love you,  but aging Europe has to sustain herself, open your windows, put

flower garlands around their necks. They are your future.



Ilja Leonard Pfeyffer, GELUKZOEKERS, de Arbeidspers, Amsterdam-Antwerpen,2015

March 16  KIM Noordwijk , Netherlands


Europe's adventure continued throughout the years to influence European cultural trends. From  the French school of painting

 of the 19th century romantic period, a panel , about 1;50 - 0;60 cm, pictures the traditional end scene of Ovid's Metamorphoses,

with an romantic extra of three cupido's.






The panel, probably part of a wall covering, was presented at a recent auction of Hotel de vente Horta in Brussels. The painting

was not signed.



Brussels,  April 4th, a visitor



The  Dutch sculptor Evert den Hertog made quite a view Europa statuettes (see contribution on page september, 2nd half 2011.

In his interpretations the relation between Europa and her composing parts, represented by the bull, always shows a close relation. Sometimes their relationship seems cosy, relaxed, or determined, or promising. The bronze statuette below sends out a complete different message




It looks the bull is running away from Europa, only Europa's cloth are still lying on his back. He forgets, without Europa, he will fall back on his own natural state, belonging to the numerous breed of common cattle. But he will be back with his tail between the legs.




Rotterdam,  2 Mei,  thanks to Sandra van de Lubbe



The heavily damaged metope of Europe on the bull on the front freeze of the Siconyan Treasury House at Delphi, nowadays in the Delphi museum, is well known. (see my study Europe What's in a Name p. 71)

On the ancient pelgrim's road a dug-out tomb-stone, from Roman origin, has been placed on this road, because of its image, without further specification.


31_07                      31_08

A bull can be clearly distinguished. A leg along his side could be remarked. This would mean someone is sitting on the bull. The remaining
of the design does not exclude such a possibility. It is known that Romans used, occasionnally, the voyage of 'Europe on the bull' of one
country to the other, as a metaphore for the voyage of the death when crossing the Styx with Charon's ferry to Hades realm of the dead.
In other words chances are that it was Europe sitting on this bull.

Delphi, June 7, a pelgrim