The 2004 election of theParlement of the European Union led to a spectacular action of the young liberals in Dresden, Germany. The young blond maiden impersonated "Europa" riding bull "Zeus".
The bull appears rather at ease, expecting a victory for the liberals?
Dresden, 2- 1 -2008 A bystander
Les Aventures de Télémaque, Fils d'Ulysse, was written by the tutor of the grandchildren of Louis XIV, François de Salignac, de la Mothe Fenelon. It was, without his consent, published by Claude Barbin, Paris in 1699. It was taken out of circulation, because it comprised too many critical allegories of the reign of Louis XIV. In the 18th century it was published again in Holland, Rotterdam by J de Wetstein in 1725, in London by Jean Hofhout in 1765, and in Leiden in 1777. Fenelon retired from the court and settled in his archbishoprie of Cambrai
In his volume I, book IX Télémaque arrives in Crete. King Idoménée takes Télémaque and his Mentor to the temple of Jupiter. "The temple was overlayed with marble, with low reliefs representing Jupiter changed into a bull, the abduction of Europe, and his crossing of the sea to Crete."
Apparently, Fenelon took this information from the Roman mythographer Dictus, 4th century
A Dutch edition of the works of Ovidius -"Alle de Werken van Ovidius Naso", published by Pieter Mortier in Amsterdam,1697, in one volume with 15 cupper engravings, shows an original engraving of 'Europe sitting on the bull' signed by the Dutch engraver Coenraet Decker, living ca. 1650-1685.
The atlas of Ortelius with a vignette of Europe on lying bull on his map of Europe, is mentionned in my book on page 124. Four more maps of Europe with its symbol follow below.
In 1604 the famous map publisher Willem Jansz. Blaeu commissioned Josua van den Ende (born ca.1584) to make a wall map of the world after Plancius (1592). Van den Ende added his own map border with the personifications of the four continents. Europe with crown is sitting on the lying bull; on the left a peaceful rural land; on the right 'war', two armies facing each other.
Pieter Kaerius or Pieter van den Keere was born in Gent, 1571-1646 (or later), emigrated to London, and learned from his brother in law, Hondius, the art of carthography. . From London he went to Amsterdam, where he made a map of Europe 'Nova Europae' in 1614. The second to fifth editions were published by Claes Jansz. Visscher to whom he sold all his cupper plates in 1623. His Europa map shows the allegoric image of Europe and the bull;
The Danckerts family was one of the best known publisher houses of Amsterdam of the 17th c. Justus Danckerts (1635-1701) was a well known illustrator and cartographer; His Europe map of their 'Atlas Novus', based on cupper engraving with original handcolouring, showsa his vignette of a lively Europe on the back of the swimming bull. Probably, according to later studies, was his Europe map largely based on the map of Frederik de Wit, 1630-1706, which had been engraved by Abraham Deur. It is most likely that the Europe map of F.de Wit showed the same Europe image.
Another publishinghouse is owned by three generations Allard. The founder, Hugo Allard, 1625-1691, designed 'Nova et acurat totius Europae tabula', which was engraved by Jan van de Velde. Also his map shows a flamboyant Europe on the bull.
The last three maps have been shown at the Belgian Royal Library during the Europalia exhibition of 2007/08.
2 February 2008 A visitor
Commemorative medal of the Peace Treaty of Utrecht of 1713. The Spanish succession war, which involved all of Europe, was concluded under the auspices of England by most of the European states. Signatories were England, France, Spain, Dutch Republic, Savoi, Prussia. As customary each country coined its own commemorative medal. The French protestant sculptor, Nicolao Chevalier, 1677-1720, working in Utrecht, made such a medal, 5,2 cm, probably for the Dutch Republic, in silver, bronze and tin.
On this side we see an altar with the crowns of the signataries. Left Great Britain hands the laurel-wreath to Europe symbolized with her bull. The heading in Latin: "PAC DEUS AETERNOS PACEM PACISQUE MINISTROS" .
March 3, 2008 van Loon IV, pp. 661, (Dutch edition)
An acrylic painting on canvas is from the Romanian artist Alexandru Radvan born in 1971 in Bucarest. His style is called represential art of epic poetry, and is part of a neorealistic interpretation of the arts.
The canvas is 100 -70 cm
Does it show the wooing of Romenia towards Europe, of which the future remains uncertain?
April - 2 - 2008 From eastern Europe
The European Commission issues large numbers of info-bulletins on all types of subjects in which it is involved. Special prints are made for information of schoolchildren, and many of them can be obtained free from the EUoffice in the member countries. Of course the Europa-emblem appears here and there.
This publication, in its 24 languages, is called "United in Diversity" and includes all its member countries, their surface, population and main features in images. An issue for primary schools. Europe on the bull is holding triumphantly the European flag and is welcomed on shore.
May, 3, 2008 A primary school in Oegstgeest, Holland.
The 200 year old porcelain factory Pirkenhammer, originally from Karlsbad, now Brezová from Bohemia in Czechy came up with an Europa statuette somewhere in the second half of the 20th century.
The statue is of glazed biscuit porcelain; its height is 34cm, no indication of the sculptor; It probably was made by the nationalized factories OEPIAG/EPIAG when Czechy was still part of the Eastern Bloc. Did the sculptor intent to indicate that the free Western continent was still faraway?
June 2 2008 listed for an auction in Czechy